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Resources: Biomass & Biofuels
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Corresponding Web Notes: Biomass & Biofuels (pptx / pdf / key)


EPA Combined Heat and Power Partnership - Biomass Resources, U.S. EPA (link / cached copy)

Biomass Power Plants In the United States (a complete list with links to many plant websites), RenewableEnergyDev.com (link / cached copy

Biomass from Sawdust:

Who Made That Charcoal Briquette, Dasha Slater, New York Times, 26 Sept. 2014 (link / cached copy)

Private Forests Profile: Oregon’s Logging Laws are the Weakest in the Northwest, OregonWild.org (link / cached copy)

Clearcutting 70% of State Forests: Not a Great Idea, ForestLegacy.Org (link / cached copy

U.S. Forest Resource Facts and Historical Trends, USDA, 2014 (link / cached copy)

Biomass from Manure:

Biogas, a Low Tech Fuel with a Big Payoff, The Star Online (link / cached copy)

Contribution of Anaerobic Digesters to Emissions Mitigation and Electricity Generation Under U.S. Climate Policy, Zaks et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, pp. 6735-42, 2011 (link / cached copy

Biomass from Municipal Solid Waste:

Municipal Solid Waste, U.S. EPA (link / cached copy

Energy Recovery from Waste, U.S. EPA (link / cached copy

Energy Recovery from the Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), U.S. EPA (link / cached copy)

Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States:

Facts and Figures for 2012, U.S. EPA (link / cached copy

Data Tables for 2012, U.S. EPA (link / cached copy)

Waste-to-Energy (Municipal Solid Waste), U.S. EIA (link / cached copy)

Fact Sheet: Municipal Solid Waste, University of Michigan Center for Sustainability (link / cached copy

Electricity from: Municipal Solid Waste, PowerScorecard.org (link / cached copy)

Study Finds Tremendous Energy Potential from Municipal Solid Waste, Recycling.com (link / cached copy

2014 Energy and Economic Value of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Including Non-Recycled Plastics (NRP), Currently Landfilled in the Fifty States, Themlis & Mussche, Columbia University (link / cached copy

Is Landfill Gas Green Energy? Natural Resources Defense Council - 2003 (link / cached copy)

Is it Better to Burn or Bury Waste for Clean Energy? Kaplan et al., Environmental Science and Technology 43, pp. 1711-17, 2009 (link / cached copy)



Biofuel's Lifetime Energy Return on Energy Invested:

Patzek 2004: Thermodynamics of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle, Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 23, 519-67 2004 (link / cached copy)

Pimentel 2005: Ethanol Production Using Corn, Switchgrass, and Wood; Biodiesel Production Using Soybean and Sunflower, Natural Resources Research 14, 64-76, 2005 (link / cached copy)

Farrell 2006: Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals, Science 311, 506-8, Jan 2006 (link / cached copy)

Hammerschlag 2006: Ethanol’s Energy Return on Investment: A Survey of the Literature 1990-Present, Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 1744-1750, 2006 (link / cached copy)

Peplow 2006: Biofuels Get a Mixed Review, Nature, Jan 2006 (link / cached copy)

Goldemberg 2007: Ethanol for a Sustainable Energy Future, Science 315, 806-10, Feb 2007 (link / cached copy)

Macedo 2008: Green House Gases Emissions in the Production and Use of Ethanol from Sugarcane in Brazil: The 2005/2006 averages and a prediction for 2020, Biomass & Bioenergy 32, 582-95, 2008 (link)

Goldemberg 2009: Are Biofuels a Feasible Option?, Energy Policy 37, 10-14, 2009 (link)

Pradham 2011: Energy Life-Cycle of Soybean Biodiesel Revisited, Transactions of the ASABE 54, 1031-39, 2011 (link / cached copy)

Michel 2012: The Nonsense of Biofuels, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 2516-18, 2012 (link / cached copy)

Nogueira 2013: The Rationality of Biofuels, Energy Policy 61, 595-98, 2013 (link)

Hall 2014: EROI of Different Fuels and the Implications for Society, Energy Policy 64, 141-152, 2014 (link / cached copy)

Tredici 2015: Energy Balance of Algal Biomass Production in a 1-ha ‘‘Green Wall Panel’’ Plant: How to produce algal biomass in a closed reactor achieving a high Net Energy Ratio, Applied Energy 154, 1103-1111, 2015 (link / cached copy)

Biofuel's Greenhouse Gas Impact:

Renewable Fuel Standard: Potential Economic and Environmental Effects of U.S. Biofuel Policy, U.S. National Academies Press, 2011 (link

Ethanol as Fuel: Energy, Carbon Dioxide Balances, and Ecological Footprint, Dias et al., BioScience 55(7), pp. 593-602, 2005 (link / cached copy)

Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Ethanol from Corn, Sugarcane and Cellulosic Biomass for U.S. Use, Wang et al., Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 045905, 2012 (link / cached copy)

Sierra Club Guidance on Biofuels, 2015 (link / cached copy

EPA Turns A Blind Eye To Ethanol’s Environmental Impacts, Sierra Club 2017 (link / cached copy

Biofuel's Land use and Fertilizer Pollution:

Attention Fracktivists: Corn Ethanol Is The Real Environmental Culprit, Forbes, 11 November 2013 (link / cached copy)

The Secret Environmental Cost of US Ethanol policy, Associated Press, 22 November 2013, (link / cached copy)

Nitrogen Fertilizer: Agricultural Breakthrough-And Environmental Bane, Scientific American, 20 March 2009 (link / cached copy)

As Ethanol Booms, Critics Warn of Environmental Effect, The New York Times, 24 June 2010 (link / cached copy)

Renewable Fuel Standard: Potential Economic and Environmental Effects of U.S. Biofuel Policy, U.S. National Academies Press, 2011 (link

Scientific Assessment of Hypoxia in U.S. Coastal Waters, White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, 2010 (link / cached copy)

Corn Ethanol's Threat to Water Resources, Union of Concerned Scientists, 2011 (link / cached copy)

New Jersey-Size 'Dead Zone' Is Largest Ever in Gulf of Mexico, National Geographic Magazine, August 2017 (link / cached copy

Biofuel's Water Consumption:

Biofuel's Water Problem, IEEE Spectrum, June 2010 (link / cached copy)

Organic but not Green, IEEE Spectrum, November 2009 (link)

Renewable Fuel Standard: Potential Economic and Environmental Effects of U.S. Biofuel Policy, U.S. National Academies Press, 2011 (link

The Water Footprint of Biofuels: A Drink or Drive Issue? Dominguez-Faus et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 3005-10, 2009 (link / cached copy

U.S. EIA FAQs: How much gasoline does the United States consume?  (link / cached copy)

The USGS Water Science School: How much water does the average person use at home per day? (link / cached copy)

Corn Biofuel's Impact on the Worldwide Cost of Food:

U.S. Could Put a Big Dent in Corn Prices by Relaxing Ethanol Rules, Washington Post, 21 August 2012 (link / cached copy)

US Corn Ethanol Fuels Food Crisis in Developing Countries, Aljazeera, 10 October 2012 (link / cached copy)

The Coming Food Crisis: Blame Ethanol? Forbes, 28 July 2012 (link / cached copy)

Fuel Vs. Food: Ethanol Helps Boost Meat Prices, National Public Radio, 22 December 2010 (link / cached copy)

A Mandate to Raise Food Prices The Cause of Higher Grocery Bills isn’t the Drought. It’s the Failed Federal Ethanol Policy, The Wall Street Journal, 27 November 2012 (link / cached copy)

Biofuels Impact on Crop and Food Prices: Using an Interactive Spreadsheet, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System International Finance Discussion Papers Number 967 March 2009 (link / cached copy)

Accurate Market Price Formation Model with both Supply-Demand and Trend-Following for Global Food Prices Providing Policy Recommendations, Lagi et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 1413108112, October 2015 (link / cached copy)



Articles about the aviation industry's interest in biofuels

United Airlines Investing $30 Million in Biofuels Producer - Associated Press, 30 June 2015 (link / cached copy)

Why Airlines Keep Pushing Biofuels: They Have No Choice - Associated Press, 21 July 2015 (link / cached copy)