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Resources: Batteries and Fuel Cells
University of Virginia

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Corresponding Web Notes: Batteries & Fuel Cells (pptx / pdf / key)

Reviews / Tutorials

What Are Batteries, Fuel Cells, and Supercapacitors? Winter and Brodd, Chemical Reviews, 104, pp. 4245−4269 (2004) (link / cached copy)

Webpages at Battery University (link)

Comparison Table of Secondary Batteries, Battery University (link / cached copy)

Batteries and Fuel Cells webpage at OpenTextBC.ca (link / cached copy)

Electrochemistry webpages at AUSeTute.com.au (link)

Comparison of Energy Storage Materials & Technologies, from my note set Fossil Fuels (pptx / pdf / key):

Battery Science:

Baghdad Battery, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Baghdad Battery in the National Museum of Iraq, Atlas Obscura (link / cached copy)

How Does a Battery Work? EDinformatics.com (link / cached copy)

Galvanic Cell, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Daniell Cell, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Oxidation Reduction Reaction, Britannica (link / cached copy)

Standard Reduction Potentials, Lumen Learning.com (link / cached copy)

Standard Reduction Potentials, University of Texas (link / cached copy)

Standard Electrode Potential (data page), Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Nernst Equation, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Salt Bridge, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Batteries in TODAY's Homes & Ground Vehicles:

Lead Acid Battery (Pb / PbO2 w/ H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte):

Lead Acid Battery, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Lead Acid Batteries Tutorial, AUSeTute.com.au (link)

Zinc Carbon Battery (Zn / MnO2 with NH4Cl or ZnCl2 paste electrolyte):

Zinc Carbon Battery, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Zinc / Carbon Batteries, Cambridge University (link / cached copy)

Zinc Carbon Battery Types, Advantages & Disadvantages, Electrical4U.com (link / cached copy)

Alkaline Battery (Zn / MnO2 with KOH aqueous electrolyte):

Alkaline Battery, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Advantages of Primary Batteries, Battery University (link / cached copy)

Will the Reusable Alkaline Battery have a Future? Battery University (link / cached copy)

Nickel Cadmium Alkaline Battery (NiO(OH) / Cd with KOH aqueous electrolyte):

Nickel Cadmium Battery, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Nickel Based Batteries, Battery University (link / cached copy)

Nickel Oxide Hydroxide, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Batteries and Fuel Cells, OpenTextBC.ca (link / cached copy)

NiCd - Memory: Myth or Fact? Battery University (link / cached copy)

Nickel Metal Hydride Alkaline Battery (Ni(OH)2 / Metal with with KOH aqueous electrolyte):

Nickel - Metal Hydride Battery, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Nickel Based Batteries, Battery University (link / cached copy)

Lithium Based Batteries:

How Do Lithium Batteries Work, Battery University (link / cached copy)

Lithium Battery / Lithium Metal Battery (non-rechargeable / "primary" / solid Li anode):

Lithium Battery, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

How Do Lithium Batteries Work, Battery University (link / cached copy)

Lithium Ion Battery (rechargeable / "secondary" / anode typically Li in graphite or silicon):

Lithium Ion Battery, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Is Lithium-ion the Ideal Battery? Battery University (link / cached copy)

Nanomaterials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries, Bruce et al., Angewandte Chemie 47, pp. 2930-46 (2008) (link)

Sources used in composing the following table:

Types of Lithium Ion Batteries, Battery University (link / cached copy)

Comparison of Commercial Battery Types, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Selection of the Battery Pack Parameters for an Electric Vehicle Based on Performance Requirements, Koniak & Czerepicki, IOP Conf. Series: Mater. Sci. Eng 211, 012005 (2017) (link / cached copy)

Comparison of Different Battery Types for Electric Vehicles, Iclodean et al., IOP Conf. Series: Mater. Sci. Eng 252, 012058 (2017) (link / cached copy)

Automotive Li-Ion Batteries: Current Status and Future Perspectives, Ding et al., Argonne National Lab, to be published in Electrochemical Energy Reviews 2 (1) (link / cached copy)

Lithium Ion Battery Fires

Events with Smoke, Fire, Extreme Heat or Explosion involving Lithium Batteries, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, January 2020 (link / cached copy)

Fire on Delta Airlines Flight Highlights Danger from Lithium-Ion Batteries, Consumer Reports, March 2018 (link / cached copy)

Asiana Airlines Flight 991, Wikipedia (link / cached copy

UPS 747 Crash Highlights Lithium Battery Danger, Flying Magazine, July 2013 (link / cached copy

What's Behind the Increase in Lithium-Ion Battery Fires on Planes? Consumer Reports, June 2017 (link / cached copy)

Assessing The Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries, Mitch Jacoby, Chemical & Engineering News 91(6), pp. 33-37 (2013), American Chemical Society (link / cached copy)

YouTube video of short circuited Li Ion Battery, Functional Macromolecular Laboratory, University of Maryland, 2012 (link):

Batteries in TOMORROW's Homes & Ground Vehicles:

Lithium Ion Battery Research


Including histories, but written for specialists (2nd article is locked behind a paywall):

Challenges for Rechargeable Li Batteries, Goodenough & Kim, Chemistry of Materials 22, pp. 587-603 (2010) (link / cached copy

Before Lithium Ion Batteries, Winter et al., Chemical Reviews 118, pp. 11433-56 (2018) (link)

More recent reviews, written for non-specialists, including material on subtopics below:

Building Safe Lithium‐Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles: A Review, Duan et al., Electrochemical Energy Reviews 2019 (link / cached copy)

Challenges and Opportunities Towards Fast-Charging Battery Materials, Liu et al., Nature Energy 4, 540-50 (2019) (link / cached copy

Anode Solid Electrode Interfaces (SEI) & cathode Interfacial Protective Films (IPF)

How to Prime Batteries (including recipes for creating desirable Li-Ion battery SEI and IPF layers), Battery University (link / cached copy)

Relevant Interface Layer research is discussed in the "More recent" reviews cited above

Improved Separators:

Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery Separators, Lagadec et al., Nature Energy 2019 (link / cached copy)

Additional Separator research is discussed in the "More recent" reviews cited above

Solid Electrolytes:

Recent Advances in Inorganic Solid Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries, Cao et al., Frontiers in Energy Research (2014) (link / cached copy)

Solid‐State Electrolytes for Lithium‐Ion Batteries: Fundamentals, Challenges and Perspectives, Zhao et al., Electrochemical Energy Reviews 2, pp. 574-605 (2019) (link / cached copy)

Additional Electrolyte research is discussed in the "More recent" reviews cited above

Research Directed at Entirely New Types of Battery:

Weird and Wonderful Batteries, Battery University (link / cached copy)

Saltwater / Aqueous Hybrid Ion Battery:

GREENROCK Saltwater Battery, BlueSky Energy I Stromspeicher Batterien (link / cached copy)

What's Inside an Aqueous Hybrid Ion Battery? Aquion Energy (cached copy)

Enabling Solar Generation and Reducing Diesel Consumption at the Redwood Gate Ranch Microgrid with Aqueous Hybrid Ion (AHI) Batteries, Aquion (link / cached copy)

Aquion Battery Review: Safe... But Limited Power & Efficiency, SolarQuotes.com (link / cached copy

Behind the Scenes of Aquion Energy’s Battery Factory & the Future of Solar Storage, Katie Fehrenbacher, Gigaom.com July 20, 2014  (link / cached copy)

Aquion Energy Closes $55M VC Round for Grid-Scale Battery Plans, Jeff St. John, GreenTechMedia.com, January 2014 (link / cached copy

Explanation for the Reactions in a Saltwater Battery with Zinc and Copper Electrodes, ChemistryStackExchange.com (link / cached copy)

YouTube video of Saltwater Battery cooked in gas flame for 30 minutes (link):

Lithium Air Battery:

Zinc Air Battery, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Zinc Air Battery, IoLithTec (link / cached copy)

Lithium Air Battery, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Development of a New-type Lithium-Air Battery with Large Capacity, AIST Japan (link / cached copy

IBM Creates Breathing, High-Density, Light-Weight Lithium-Air Battery, Sebastian Anthony, ExtremeTech.com, April 2012 (link / cached copy)

Why Practical Battery-Powered Air & Sea Transport is a Long Way Off:

Fast Facts on Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2017  (link / cached copy)

Green Aircraft Power:

Electric Aircraft, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Boeing 777, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Electric Aircraft - The Future of Aviation or Wishful Thinking? Phys Org, Aug 2015 (link / cached copy)

The Age of Electric Aviation Is Just 30 Years Away, Wired, May 2017  (link / cached copy)

Electric Flight is Coming, but the Batteries Aren't Ready,The Verge, Aug 2017 (link / cached copy

Preparing for Electric Flight, Royal Aeronautical Society, Aug 2017  (link / cached copy)

The Long Road to an Electric Airplane Motor, ZDNet, Sept 2018  (link / cached copy)

Short Hops, Clear Air and the Sweet Spot for Electric Aircraft, NewAtlas 2019 (link / cached copy)

 World’s Largest All-Electric Aircraft Set for First Flight, The Guardian, May 2020 (link / cached copy)

Green Ship Power:

Carbon Dioxide from Ships at Sea to be Regulated for First Time, The Guardian 2018 (link / cached copy

GREEN Cell Shipping, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Decarbonising Maritime Transport by 2035, Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD)  (link / cached copy)

Green Ship of the Future, OECD (link / cached copy)

The Role of Technology in Green Ship Design, Cheng & Hirdaris, Keynote Address, 11th Int. Marine Design Conf. 2012 (link / cached copy

Study of Green Shipping Technologies - Harnessing Wind, Waves and Solar Power in New Generation Marine Propulsion Systems,  Rutkowski, Int. J. on Marine Navigation & Safety of Transportation 10 (4), pp. 627-32, 2016 (link / cached copy)

Future Sailors: What will Ships Look Like in 30 Years? The Guardian 2018 (link / cached copy)

14 Technologies to Make the Ultimate Green Ship, MarineInsight.com 2019 (link / cached copy)

$5bn Fund Unveiled for Climate-Friendly Shipping, BBC 2019 (link / cached copy

Eco Marine Power Research Institute R&D (link / cached copy

Most Powerful Diesel Engine in the World, NewAtlas.com 2004 (link / cached copy

New High-Economy Engines for Panamax Container Ships and Large Tankers, DieselDuck.info 2007  (link / cached copy)

Panamax, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

How long does it take to ship from China? ChinaImportal.com 2018 (link / cached copy)

Calculating Container Shipping Time, TheODMgroup.com  (link / cached copy)

A Behind the Scenes Take on Lithium-Ion Battery Prices, BloombergNEF.com (link / cached copy)

Container Ship, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

How Much Do Cruise Ships Cost? And Why Are They So Expensive? CheatSheet.ocm (link / cached copy)

China Launches World’s First All-Electric Cargo Ship, OilPrice.com 2017 (link / cached copy

Batteries in TOMORROW's Greener Electrical Grid:

Energy Storage Technologies for Electric Applications, Martin et al., University of San Sebastian (?), Spain (link / cached copy)

Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems, Kramer et al., 2008, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab (link / cached copy

Lithium–Antimony–Lead Liquid Metal Battery for Grid-level Energy Storage, Wang et al., Nature 514, pp. 348-350 (2014) (link / cached copy

Electrochemical Energy Storage for Green Grid, Yang et al., Chemical Reviews 111, pp. 3577-3613 (2011) (link)

Evaluation of Energy Storage Technologies for Integration with Renewable Electricity: Quantifying Expert Opinion, Daim et al., Env. & Soc. Transitions 3, pp. 29-49 (2021)  (link)

Commercial and Research Battery Techniques for Storage Applications, Cho et al., Prog. Energy and Combust. Sci. 48, pp. June 2015, Pages 84-101 (2015) (link)

Fuel Cells / Electrochemical Cells:

Fuel Cell Basics, Smithsonian Institution (link / cached copy)

Fuel Cell, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Electrolysis of Water / Hydrogen Fuel Cell, HyperPhysics, Georgia State University (link / cached copy)

Types of Fuel Cells, Energy.gov (link / cached copy)

Design and Analysis of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells For Electrical Energy Storage, Advanced Energy Systems Group, Colorado School of Mines - and references therein (link / cached copy

Regenerative (reversible) Fuel Cell, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

What are Regenerative Fuel Cells? AltEnergy.org (link / cached copy)

Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology for Green Fuel and Power Production, Mihn et al., Interface (Electrochemical Society)  2013 (link / cached copy)

Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems - NREL 2008 (link / cached copy

Hydrogen for Energy Storage Analysis Overview, Steward et al., U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab 2010 (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future, Edwards et al., Energy Policy 26, pp. 4356-4362 (2008) (link)

Hydrogen Energy Storage, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (link / cached copy)

Physical Hydrogen Storage, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (link / cached copy)

Ammonia: Zero-Carbon Fertiliser, Fuel and Energy Store, The Royal Society 2020 (link / cached copy)

Comparison Chart of Fuel Cell Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy, 2016 (link / cached copy)

Analysis of Hydrogen and Competing Technologies for Utility Scale Energy Storage - U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, 2010 (link / cached copy