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Corresponding Web Notes: Transportation (pptx / pdf / key)

Under Construction - July 2020

Energy Consumption & Environmental Impacts of Transportation:

Global Energy Consumption:

Energy, Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser, OurWorldInData.org, July 2018 (link / cached copy)

International Energy Outlook 2019 - With Extrapolations to 2050, U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), (link / cached copy)

My spreadsheet creating combined OECD + non-OECD figure from report's data (link)

Global Transportation Energy Consumption - Examination of Scenarios to 2040 using ITEDD - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2017 (link / cached copy

International Energy Outlook 2016, U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), (link / cached copy)

Global Transportation Demand Development with Impacts on the Energy Demand and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a Climate-Constrained World, Khalili et al., Energies 12, p. 3870 (2019) (link / cached copy)

Energy Efficiency in Transport, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

U.S. Energy Consumption:

U.S. Energy Flow - 2018, U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (link / cached copy)

Use of Energy for Transportation - In Depth, U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (link / cached copy)

Transportation Statistics Annual Report - 2018, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) (link / cached copy)

Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions:

Transport, Chapter 8, Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change - Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (link / cached copy)

A Global Snapshot of the Air Pollution Related Health Impacts of Transportation Sectors in 2010 and 2015 - International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), 2019 (link / cached copy)

Environmental Impact of Transport, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions:

Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2012, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2014 (now broken EPA link / cached copy)

Fast Facts on Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Archive version, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2017 (link / cached copy)

Unique Impacts / Concerns Regarding Tranport Via:

Cars:

2019 Automotive Trends Report - Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Fuel Economy, and Technology since 1975, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (link / cached copy)

The Damage Done, Gas Addiction Edition -- How Detrimental Is Petrol? Thomas.net 2012 (link / cached copy)

Obama Administration Finalizes Historic 54.5 MPG Fuel Efficiency Standards, ObamaWhitehouse.archives.gov (link / cached copy)

Trains:

The Future of Rail - Opportunities for Energy and the Environment - International Energy Agency (IEA), 2019 (link / cached copy)

Aircraft:

Aviation Emissions Impacts and Mitigation - A Primer, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 2015 - (note that while plots of aircraft emissions in this report include data on pollutants and secondary GHG's, data on the major GHG's of CO2 and methane are not provided) (link / cached copy)

CO2 Emissions from Commercial Aviation, International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), 2018  (link / cached copy)

'Worse Than Anyone Expected’: Air Travel Emissions Vastly Outpace Predictions, New York Times, September 2019 (link / cached copy

Environmental Impact of Aviation, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Ships:

Comprehensive Studies:

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ships - Cost Effectiveness of Available Options, International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), 2011 (link / cached copy)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Shipping 2013-2015, International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), 2017 (link / cached copy)

Black Carbon and Co-Pollutants from Incomplete Combustion, Climate & Clean Air Coalition (link / cached copy)

Decarbonising Maritime Transport by 2035, Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD)  (link / cached copy)

Press Reports:

U.S. Study Warns of Pollution from Merchant Ships off Florida Coast, Guardian 2009 (link / cached copy)

Slowing Cargo Ships More Than Halves Pollution near Ports, Scientific American 2012 (link / cached copy)

Carbon Dioxide from Ships at Sea to be Regulated for First Time, The Guardian 2018 (link / cached copy

Health Risks of Shipping Pollution have been Underestimated, Guardian 2019 (link / cached copy)

How Power is Expended in Different Modes of Transport:

Sustainable Energy without the Hot Air, David J.C. MacKay, UIT, ISBN 978-0-9544529-3-3

Author's website offering free multi-language chapter viewing & downloads (link)

Technical chapter: Cars II (link)

Technical chapter: Planes II (link)

Trains:

The Future of Rail - Opportunities for Energy and the Environment - International Energy Agency (IEA), 2019 (link / cached copy)

Ships:

Study on Energy Efficiency Technologies for Ships (ECOFYS) - European Union, 2014 (link / cached copy

Ship Energy Efficiency Measures - Status and Guidance, ABS Energy Efficiency Advisory (link / cached copy)

Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion, ManDieselTurbo.com (link / cached copy)

Reducing Fuel Consumption In Shipping Via Propulsion Efficiency, Howden.com (link / cached copy

How to Design a More Efficient Ship (Part I), gCaptain.com, 2012 (link / cached copy)

How to Propel a More Efficient Ship (Part II), gCaptain.com, 2012 (link / cached copy

Possible Energy Saving Technologies for:

Cars & Trucks:

See separate web note set: Green(er) Cars & Trucks (pptx / pdf / key)

Trains:

Shinkansen, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Hyperloop, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

The Future of Rail - Opportunities for Energy and the Environment - International Energy Agency (IEA), 2019 (link / cached copy)

Technologies and Potential Developments for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Reductions in Rail Systems - International Railways Union (UIC), 2016 (link / cached copy)

Aircraft:

Mitigation of Aviation's Environmental Impact, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Route Optimization:

Air Traffic Control, Wikipedia (link / cached copy

Use of Lightweight Composites:

Composites in the Aircraft Industry, Appropedia.org (link / cached copy)

Advanced Lightweight Aircraft Design Configurations for Green Operations, Marino et al., Practical Responses to Climate Change Conference, Australia, November 2014 (link / cached copy

Light-Weighting in Aerospace Component and System Design, Zhu et al., J. Propulsion and Power Research 7(2), pp. 103-119 (2018) (link / cached copy)

More Efficient Jet Engines:

Jet Engine, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Turboprop, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Turbofan, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Geared Trubofan, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

What is a High-Bypass Geared Turbofan, and Why is it so Much More Efficient? AviationStackExchange.com (link / cached copy

The Billion-Dollar Bet On Jet Tech That's Making Flying More Efficient, Forbes 2013 (link / cached copy

Geared Turbofan Engine, Airplane Geeks Podcast (link / cached copy)

All Electric Aircraft?

Electric Aircraft, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Boeing 777, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Electric Aircraft - The Future of Aviation or Wishful Thinking? Phys Org, Aug 2015 (link / cached copy)

The Age of Electric Aviation Is Just 30 Years Away, Wired, May 2017  (link / cached copy)

Electric Flight is Coming, but the Batteries Aren't Ready,The Verge, Aug 2017 (link / cached copy

Preparing for Electric Flight, Royal Aeronautical Society, Aug 2017  (link / cached copy)

The Long Road to an Electric Airplane Motor, ZDNet, Sept 2018  (link / cached copy)

Short Hops, Clear Air and the Sweet Spot for Electric Aircraft, NewAtlas 2019 (link / cached copy)

 World’s Largest All-Electric Aircraft Set for First Flight, The Guardian, May 2020 (link / cached copy)

Ships:

Study on Energy Efficiency Technologies for Ships (ECOFYS) - European Union, 2014 (link / cached copy

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ships - Cost Effectiveness of Available Options, International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), 2011 (link / cached copy)

Bulbous Bow, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Ship Energy Efficiency Measures - Status and Guidance, ABS Energy Efficiency Advisory (link / cached copy)

Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion, ManDieselTurbo.com (link / cached copy)

Reducing Fuel Consumption In Shipping Via Propulsion Efficiency, Howden.com (link / cached copy

How to Design a More Efficient Ship (Part I), gCaptain.com, 2012 (link / cached copy)

How to Propel a More Efficient Ship (Part II), gCaptain.com, 2012 (link / cached copy

GREEN Cell Shipping, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Green Ship of the Future, OECD (link / cached copy)

The Role of Technology in Green Ship Design, Cheng & Hirdaris, Keynote Address, 11th Int. Marine Design Conf. 2012 (link / cached copy

Study of Green Shipping Technologies - Harnessing Wind, Waves and Solar Power in New Generation Marine Propulsion Systems,  Rutkowski, Int. J. on Marine Navigation & Safety of Transportation 10 (4), pp. 627-32, 2016 (link / cached copy)

Future Sailors: What will Ships Look Like in 30 Years? The Guardian 2018 (link / cached copy)

14 Technologies to Make the Ultimate Green Ship, MarineInsight.com 2019 (link / cached copy)

$5bn Fund Unveiled for Climate-Friendly Shipping, BBC 2019 (link / cached copy

Eco Marine Power Research Institute R&D (link / cached copy

All Electric Ships?

Most Powerful Diesel Engine in the World, NewAtlas.com 2004 (link / cached copy

New High-Economy Engines for Panamax Container Ships and Large Tankers, DieselDuck.info 2007  (link / cached copy)

Panamax, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

How long does it take to ship from China? ChinaImportal.com 2018 (link / cached copy)

Calculating Container Shipping Time, TheODMgroup.com  (link / cached copy)

A Behind the Scenes Take on Lithium-Ion Battery Prices, BloombergNEF.com (link / cached copy)

Container Ship, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

How Much Do Cruise Ships Cost? And Why Are They So Expensive? CheatSheet.ocm (link / cached copy)

China Launches World’s First All-Electric Cargo Ship, OilPrice.com 2017 (link / cached copy)

Ammonia Powered Ships?

Roadmap to Decarbonising European Shipping, TransportEnvironment.org 2018 (link / cached copy)

Ammonia - A Renewable Fuel Made from Sun, Air, and Water - Could Power the Globe without Carbon, Science Magazine 2018 (link / cached copy

Ammonia: Zero-Carbon Fertiliser, Fuel and Energy Store, The Royal Society 2020 (link / cached copy)

A Preliminary Study on an Alternative Ship Propulsion System Fueled by Ammonia: Environmental and Economic Assessments, Kim et al., J. Marine Science and Engineering 8, p. 183 (2020), (link / cached copy)

New Research Shows Benefits of Ammonia as Marine Fuel, MaritimeExecutive.com 2019 (link / cached copy)

Offshore Vessel to Run on Ammonia-Powered Fuel Cell, MaritimeExecutive.com 2020 (link / cached copy)

Ammonia as a Green Shipping Fuel: The Viking Energy Project, AzoCleanTech.com 2020 (link / cached copy

Ammonia Flagged as Green Shipping Fuel of the Future, Financial Times 2020 (link / cached copy

Lloydʼs Register on How Ammonia can be the Ideal Renewable Marine Fuel, ShipTechnology.com 2020 (link / cached copy