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Resources: Nano Challenges & Fears
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PowerPoint Lecture Notes: Nano Challenges & Fears

Animations & Movies used in the Lecture:

CytImmune's Inc's proposed tumor targeting nanoparticles:

The overall strategy
The required components
Self-Assembly of the Au nanoparticles

CytImmune "technology" webpage containing the above animations (click here)

Readings Relevant to the Lecture:

Listed below are links to and cached copies of papers dealing with the challenges and fears raised by nanoscience and technology. These readings are organized into the following (linked) sections:

General Resources:

Wikipedia webpage on molecular nanotechnology / manufacturing (link / cached article)

Wikipedia webpage on molecular assemblers (link / cached article)

Wikipedia webpage on self-replicating machines (link / cached article)

Homepage of the Center for Responsible Nanotechnology (link / cached page)

Homepage of the virtual journal on Nano Environmental Health and Safety (link / cached page)

The Nano Debate:

The Fears:

Bill Joy's dark musings on: "Why the Future Doesn't Need Us" (link / cached article)

David Rejeski on: "Why Nano Fear will not Disappear" (link / cached article)

K. Eric Drexler's concerns about nanoweapons: "The Stealth Threat" (cached article)

The Views of Two Think Tanks:

ETC Group's: "Tiny Primer on Nanotech" (link / cached article)

Center for Responsible Nanotechnology's: "Safe Utilization of Nanotechnology"
(link / cached article)

Trying to Separate Nano Fact from Nano Fiction:

Gimzewski & Vensa's: "Blurring of Fact and Fiction in the Construction of a New Science"
(link / cached article)

Tom Kennan: "Cutting Nanotech Down to Size" (link / cached article)

Richard A.L. Jones: "Rupturing The Nanotech Rapture" (link / cached article)

The View of an Ethicist:

Berne on "Tiny Ethics for Big Challenges" (cached article)

The View of Policy Makers:

NSF's Rocco and Bainbridge on "Societal Implications of Nano . . ."
(cached article)

Molecular Manufacturing / "The Gray Goo":

Phoenix & Drexler on taming self-replicating machines: "Safe Exponential Manufacturing"
(cached article)

Consultant David Forrest on: "Molecular Manufacturing and Technology Planning"
(link / cached article)

Nano Medicine:

Smithsonian Magazine on the "Hygiene Hypothesis:"

The Unintended (and Deadly) Consequences of Living in the Industrialized World (cached article)

Nanoparticles in Cancer Treatment:


Scientific American: "Nanoparticles Enable Surgical Strikes against Cancer" (link / cached article)

Excellent Tutorials Providing More Depth:

IEEE Spectrum: "Journey to the Center of a Tumor" (link / cached article)

Physics Today: "Nanotechnology in Cancer Medicine" (link / cached article)

Detailed Technical Reviews:

Faraji and Wipf - "Nanoparticles in Cellular Drug Delivery" (cached article)

Cho et al. - "Therapuetic Naoparticles for Drug Delivery in Cancer (cached article)

Wilhelm et al. - Analysis of Nanoparticle Delivery to Tumors (cached copy)

Nano Hazards in General

Andrew Maynard's: "Safe Handling of Nanotechnology" (cached article)

Vicki Colvin's: "The Potential Environmental Impact of Engineered Nanomaterials"
(cached article)

Karen Florini et al.: "Nanotechnology: Getting it Right the First Time" (link / cached article)

Kipin & Laskin: "Smaller is not Always Better: Nanotechnology Yields Nanotoxicology"
(link / cached article)

Karn & Scott: Nano Particles without Macroproblems (link / cached article)

Albrecht et al.:"The crucial role of particle surface reactivity in quartz induced. . ." - Respiratory Research, vol. 6, 2005 (link / cached article)

Nanoparticle Toxicology

Gwinn & Vallyathan: "Nanoparticles: Health Effects - Pros and Cons" (link / cached article)

Mossman et al.: "Mechanisms of Action of Inhaled Fibers, Particles and Nanoparticles in Lung and Cardiovascular Diseases" - Particle and Fiber Toxicology, vol. 4, 2007. (link / cached article)

Oberdorster et al.: "Nanotoxicology: An Emerging Discipline Evolving from Studies of Ultrafine Particles" - Environmental Health Perspectives vol. 113, p. 823, 2008 - (link / cached copy)

Jan et al.: "High Content Screening as a Universal Tool for Fingerprinting the Cytoxicity of Nanoparticles" - ACS Nano vol. 2, p. 928, 2008 (link / cached article)

U.S. National Cancer Institute: "Exploring Nanoparticle Toxicity" (link / cached copy)

ETC Group: "Nano's Troubled Waters - Latest toxic warning shows nanoparticles cause brain damage in aquatic species . . ." (link / cached copy)

Nanoparticle Gold Application and Toxicology

Chen et al.: "Gold Nanoparticles: From Nanomedicine to Nanosensing" - review in Nanotechnology Science and Application, p. 45, 2008 (link / cached copy)

Murphy et al: "Gold Nanoparticles in Biology: Beyond Toxicity to Cellular Imaging" - Accounts of Chemical Research, preprint downloaded fall 2008 (link / cached copy)

Pan et al.: "Size-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Gold Nanoparticles" - Small, vol. 3, p. 1941, 2007 (link / cached copy)

Patra et al: "Cell Selective Response to Gold Nanoparticles" - Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, vol. 3, p.111, 2007 (link / cached copy)

Wiwananitkit et al.: "Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Spermatozoa: The First World Report" - Fertility and Sterility, preprint December 2007 (link / cached copy)

Nanoparticle Silver Toxicology

Pillai et al., "Linking Toxicity and Adaptive Responses across the Transcriptome, Proteome, and Phenotype of
Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Exposed to Silver," vol. 111, pp. 3490-95, Proceeding of the Nation Academy of Science, March 4, 2014 (Phys Org summary / cached copy of full journal article)

Drake and Hazelwood: "Exposure-Related Health Effects of Silver and Silver Compounds: A Review" - Annals of Occupational Hygiene, vol. 49, p. 575, 2005 (link / cached copy)

Emma Fauss: "Risk Analysis of Nanotechnology through Expert Elicitation: A Silver Nanotechnology Case Study" - UVA M.S. Thesis (cached copy)

EPA press release on fine for IOGEAR's use of nanoparticle silver in computer preipherals (cached copy)

Natural Resources Defense Council's petition to the EPA for "Registration of Nanosilver as a Pesticide under FIFRA" (link / cached copy)

International Center for Technology Assessment's petition "Requesting EPA Regulate Nanosilver Products as Pesticides:

- Press Release (link / cached copy)
- Full Legal Petition (link / cached copy)
- Sixty page long list of products alleged to incorporate nanoparticle silver (link / cached copy)

Asbestos Toxicology and Possible Parallels in Carbon Nanotubes

Mossman et al: "Asbestos: Scientific Developments and Implications for Public Policy" - Science vol. 247, p. 294 (1990) (link / cached copy)

Shukla et al.: "Multiple roles of oxidants in the pathogenesis of asbestos-induced diseases" - Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 34, p. 1117, 2003 (link / cached copy)

Aleman and Mossman: "Asbestos Revisited" - Scientific American, p. 70, July 1997 (link / cached copy)

Phillip M. Cook (National Health and Environmental Effects Lab): "Asbestos and Related Durable Fibers: Too Ubiquitous, Too Persistent, Too Complex to Put Health Risks to Rest?" Includes discussion of possible carbon nanotube parallels. Obtained from P.M. Cook via personal communication (cached copy)

Poland et al: "Carbon Nanotubes Introduced into the Abdominal Cavity of Mice show Asbestos Like Pathogenicity in a Pilot Study" - Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 3, p. 423 (2008) (link / cached copy)

Andrew Maynard: "Carbon Nanotubes That Look Like Asbestos, Behave Like Asbestos" - The Nanotechnology Project (link / cached copy) - link includes video interview with Maynard

Kane and Hurt: "The Asbestos Analogy Revisited" - Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 3, p. 378 (2008) (link / cached copy)

The Use of Nanoparticles in Sunscreen

Friends of the Earth's: "Guide to Nanotechnology and Sunscreens" (link / cached article)

Scientific American on: "Do Nanoparticles and Sunscreen Mix?" (link / cached article)

Consumer Reports: "More Testing and Regulation Needed for Nanotechnology"
(link / cached article)

Consumer Reports: 2008 tests indicating sunblocks labeled "no nano" may in fact contain nanoparticles
(link / cached article)

A rebuttal from the blog of: "The Angry Toxicologist" (link / cached article)