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Corresponding Web Notes: Wind Power I (pptx / pdf / key) & Wind Power II (pptx / pdf / key)


The State of Wind Power in the U.S.

Source: My web note set on U.S. Energy Production & Consumption (pptx / pdf / key)

U.S. Wind Power Cost: See my web note set on Power Plant Economics (pptx / pdf / key)

U.S. Wind Power Growth: See Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Energy Infrastructure Update - May 2018 (link / cached copy)

Wind Resource Maps (daily & seasonal average of wind speed)

NREL / AWS Truepower Map at 100m - 2013 (link)
AWS Truepower Map at 80m - 2012 (link)
NREL Map at 50m - 2009 (cached copy)

Aerodynamics 101:

Lift and Drag

Lift Force, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Lift Coefficient , Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Drag Coefficient, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Aerodynamic Lift, Drag & Moment Coefficients, AeroToolbox.net (link / cached copy)

Airfoils & Wings, Prof. Frederick H. Lutze, AOE 3104 Class Notes, Virginia Tech (link / cached copy)

Wind Turbine Aerodynamics, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Why Bernoulli's Equation does NOT explain aerodynamic lift (equation is derived in Aerodynamics 201, below)

Bernoulli and Newton in Fluid Dynamics, Norman F. Smith, The Physics Teacher 10, pp. 451-455, 1972 (link / cached copy)

An Aerodynamicist's View of Lift, Bernoulli, and Newton, Charles N. Eastlake, The Physics Teacher 40, pp. 166-173, 2002 (link / cached copy)

NASA webpages on Drag under Conditions of Stall:

Inclination Effects on Drag (link / cached copy)

Inclination Effects on Lifts and Drag (link / cached copy)

Aerodynamic Studies of Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTS)

Development and Analysis of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines, Chapter 8, Paul Copper, School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia (link / cached copy)

Aerodynamic Models for Darrieus-type Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbines,Islam et al., Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 12, pp. 1087-1109, 2008 (link

Overview of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbines, Kumara et al., Int. J. Sci. Res. & Innovative Tech. 4, pp. 56-67, 2017 (link / cached copy)

Effect of Camber Airfoil on Self Starting of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine - Beri & Yao - J. Env. Sci. Tech . 4, pp. 302-12, 2011 (link / cached copy)

A New Approach for Modeling Darrieus-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Rotors Using Electrical Equivalent Circuit Analogy: Basis of Theoretical Formulations and Model Development, Tchakoua et al., Energies 8, pp. 10684-10717, 2015 (link / cached copy)

The Autogyro Effect that propels both "Darrieus" Vertical Axis Wind Turbines & Gyrocopters

"Pathe Newsreel" about flight of early British Autogyros (1967)

YouTube link

Getting the autogyro's rotation started (on a windless gravel runway)

YouTube link

Optimum Number of Blades on a Wind Turbine

Wind Turbines: How Many Blades, Danish Wind Industry Association (link / cached copy)

Are Three Blades Really Better than Two? Windpower Monthly (link / cached copy)

Wind Turbine Efficiencies (based on measurements and/or computer models)

Danish Turbines

The Betz Limit, WindPowerProgram.com (link / cached copy)

Dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control Strategies for 2 MW Wind Generating Systems, Mihet-Popa & Groza, International Review of Modeling and Simulations 5, 2010 (link / cached copy

Wind Energy Fact Sheet, University of Michigan Center for Sustainable Systems (link / cached copy)

Darrieus Turbines

CFD Simulations of Power Coefficients for an Innovative Darrieus Style Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Auxiliary Straight Blades, Arpino et al.,  IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 923 (2017) 012036 (link / cached copy)

Analysis of Different Blade Architectures on smallVAWT Performance, L. Battisti et al., 2016 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 753 062009  (link / cached copy)

Aerodynamic Performance of a 5 Metre Diameter Darrieus Turbine with Extruded Aluminum NACA 0015 blades, Sandia Labs, 1980 (link / cached copy)

Savonius Turbines

Experimental Studies of Savonius Wind Turbines with Variations Sizes and Fin Numbers Towards Performance, Utomo et al., AIP Conference Proceedings 1931, 030041, 2018 (link / cached copy

An Experimental Study on Improvement of Savonius Rotor Performance, Mahmoud et at., Alexandria Engineering Journal 51, 19–25, 2012 (link / cached copy)

Design and Evaluation of Twisted Savonius Wind Turbine, Duffet et al, School of Engineering. Memorial University (Newfoundland & Labrador CA) (link / cached copy)

Aerodynamics 201

Bernoulli's Equation

Bernoulli Equation, Georgia State University (link / cached copy)

Bernoulli's Equation, Lumen Learning (link / cached copy)

Betz's Law on Upper Limit to Wind Turbine Efficiency

Betz's Law, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

The Betz Limit, WindPowerProgram.com (link / cached copy)

Trends in Wind Turbine Development and Deployment

Wind Vision Report, U.S. Department of Energy, 2015 (link / cached copy)

Wind Energy Technology: Current Status and R&D Future, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, 2008 (link / cached copy)

Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, 2014 (link / cached copy)

An Illustrated Guide to the Growing Size of Wind Turbines, Greentech Media, 2017 (link / cached copy)

Size Matters: The Next Big Thing In Wind Turbines, General Electric Reports (link / cached copy)

These Huge New Wind Turbines are a Marvel -They’re also the future, VOX, 2018 (link / cached copy)

World’s Largest Wind Turbine Would be Taller Than the Empire State Building, Scientific, 2017 (link / cached copy)




Offshore Wind Power

Smithsonian Channel show about wind turbine installation ship M.V. Resolution:

YouTube link

1st ever floating wind farm 25 km off Scotland's coast - Statoil Hywind w/ five 6 MW / 154 meter diameter turbines:

YouTube link

Hywind Scotland brochure (link / cached copy)

Our Ambitions for Hywind, Equinor (link / cached copy)

World's First Offshore Wind Farm Outdelivers, OffShoreWind.biz, 2018 (link / cached copy)

Plans for California Floating Wind Farms

After an Uncertain Start, U.S. Offshore Wind is Powering Up, Yale Environment 360, 2018 (link / cached copy)

Floating Wind Farm Plan Could Finally Crack California's Offshore Market, MIT Technology Review, 2017 (link / cached copy)

New Offshore Wind Project Planned for California, The Maritime Executive, 2017 (link / cached copy)

Northern California Could be Home to First U.S. Floating Wind Farm, MarineLog.com, 2018 (link / cached copy)

Spreadsheet behind Wind Power - Part II noteset simulations of offshore wind turbine + cruise ship (link):

Wind Power Economics

See my note set: Power Plant Economics: Analysis Techniques & Data

Wind Power Return on Energy Invested

See my note set: Lifetime Energy Return on Energy Invested - EROI

The seminal research publication on EROI:

Murphy 2010: Year in review - EROI or Energy Return on (Energy) Invested, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1185, pp. 102–118, 2010 (link)

Other research studies of Wind Power's EROI:

White 1998: Net Energy Payback and CO2 Emissions from Wind-Generated Electricity in the Midwest (link / cached copy)

Cohen 2008: Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, TP 500 41036, 2008 (link / cached copy)

Kubiszewski 2010: Meta-Analysis of Net Energy Return for Wind Power Systems, Renewable Energy 35, 218-25, 2010 (link)

Tegen 2010: 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, TP 5000 52920, 2010 (link / cached copy)

Hand 2010: Wind Generation Technology Cost Modeling, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, talk 2010 (link / cached copy)

Lantz 2012: The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy, IEA Wind Task 26, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, 2012 (link / cached copy)

Hand 2013: Wind Plant Cost of Energy: Past and Future, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, talk 2013 (link / cached copy)

AWEA 2013: Setting the Record Straight about Wind’s Lifecycle Emissions and Return on Energy Invested, American Wind Association Blog, 2013 (link / cached copy)

Integrating Wind Power into the Grid

Elertropaedia's overview of wind power and its Grid synchronization technology (link / cached copy)

The 28 September 2016 Southern Australia Blackout

Wikipedia's overview of the blackout (link / cached copy)

Wikipedia's list of power stations in Southern Australia (link / cached copy)

News reports of the blackout:

South Australia Power Outage: How did it Happen? Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 28 September 2016 (link / cached copy

Australia Has Serious Problems With Green Energy Triggering Blackouts, The Daily Caller, 23 November 2016 (link / cached copy

Reaction / exploitation of the event:

South Australia's Blackout Blame Game, The Diplomat, 5 October 2016 (link / cached copy

Tesla Battery Races to Save Australia Grid from Coal Plant Crash, Electrek.co, 19 December 2017 (link / cached copy

South Australia’s Blackout Draws Attention to Battery Storage: "A critical level of battery storage to provide adequate resilience could be many years away," GreentechMedia.com, 24 October 2017 (link / cached copy)

Subsequent reports & expert analyses:

AEMO Integrated Final Report on the 2016 Southern Australia Blackout - March 2017 (link / cached copy)

AEMO Releases Final Report into SA Blackout - Blames Wind Farm Settings for State-Wide Power Failure , Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 28 March 2017 (link / cached copy)

Final Report Reveals the Causes of South Australia’s Statewide Blackout, News.com.au, 28 March 2017 (link / cached copy

South Australian Select Committee’s State-Wide Electricity Blackout and Subsequent Power Outages Inquiry Report, 12 April 2017 (link / cached copy)

South Australia's Blackouts: It's not Black or White, Australian Energy Council, 11 May 2017 (link / cached copy)

Australian Electricity Market: Struggling to Cope with De-Carbonisation, Watt-Logic.com, 2 June 2017 (link / cached copy

Amid Blackout Scare Stories, Remember that a Grid without Power Cuts is Impossible... and Expensive, PhysOrg, 27 August 2018 (link / cached copy)

The Broader Impacts of Wind Power

Impact of Onshore Wind Farms on Birds & Bats

Exploratorium video about bird strikes at the Altamont Wind Farm (edited version):

YouTube link

Seminal study about bird and bat kills due to wind turbines

Comparing Bird and Bat Fatality-Rate Estimates Among North American Wind-Energy Projects, K. Shawn Smallwood, Wildlife Society Bulletin 37(1), pp. 19–33, 2013 (link / cached copy)

Appendix II Data from that study (link / cached copy)

My re-analysis of that Appendix II data taking into account effect of turbine height (cached copy)

Press & advocacy group reporting about that study:

Wind Turbines Kill More Birds than BP Oil Spill, Daily Caller, 20 April 2015 (link / cached copy)

License to Kill: Wind and Solar Decimate Birds and Bats, Institute for Energy Research, 29 April 2015 (link / cached copy)

Wind Farms Kill 10-20 Times More Than Previously Thought, SaveTheEaglesInternational.org (link / cached copy)

Seminal study on the likely effect of wind turbine color upon bat kill rates:

The Interaction of Bats (Microchiroptera) with Wind Turbines: Bioacoustic and other Investigations, Chloe V. Long, Ph.D. Thesis, Loughborough University 2011 (link / cached copy)

Treehugger.Com's story about the preceding wind turbine color study (link / cached copy)

Comparisons of bird kill rates from all manmade sources

Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes, Loss et al., Annual Reviews 2015 (link

State of the Birds.Org's 2014 Annual Report (link / cached copy)

Audubon Society's Position on Wind Power (link / cached copy)

Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Sea Life

Marine Life Thrives in Unlikely Place: Offshore Oil Rigs, New York Times, 7 March 2016 (link / cached copy)

Video included with web-posted article: 

YouTube link

First Evidence that Offshore Wind Farms are Changing the Oceans, MIT Technology Review, 2017 (link / cached copy), describing the following now published paper:

The Large Scale Impact of Offshore Wind Farm Structures on Pelagic Primary Productivity in the Southern North Sea, Slavik et al., arXiv.org, 2018 (link / cached copy


Britain's Telegraph Newspaper using a Decibel Meter to measure noise in various locales:

YouTube link


Breaking News

Dominion Energy Plans Major Offshore Wind Farm near Virginia Beach, Gregory S. Schnieder, Washington Post, 9 September 2019 (link / cached copy)

List of Offshore Wind Farms, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)


Copyright: John C. Bean (WeCanFigureThisOut.org)