We Can Figure This Out.org
Virtual Lab: How Semiconductors and Transistors Work
University of Virginia
© 2003-Present, John C. Bean
Because of their repulsion, the clouds of electrons 13 & 14 would like to move farther apart.

This repulsive force drives not only these electrons, but also electrons 11 & 12, to reorganize themselves as shown here.

The final arrangement yields a tetrahedron of four outer "valence" or bonding electrons spaced symmetrically (by 109 degrees) around the atom core.

The core (with 14 positive protons and 10 negative electrons) carries a net charge of +4, precisely balancing the -4 charge of the bonding electrons.

Last Scene
Next Scene