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Resources: Green(er) Cars and Trucks
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  > WCFTO Home > Energy Home > Web Notes > Resources: Greener Cars and Trucks  
         
  Corresponding Web Notes: Greener Cars and Trucks (pptx / pdf / key)

Sources, in approximate order of citation within the note set:

Introduction:

Energy Spent Moving ALL Cars and Trucks:

See my preceding note set: Energy Consumption in Transportation (pptx / pdf / key)

World Energy Balances - Overview - 2020, International Energy Agency (IEA) (link / cached copy)

Key World Energy Statistics - 2019, International Energy Agency (IEA) (link / cached copy)

World Energy Consumption, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Electricity Information - Overview - 2020, International Energy Agency (IEA) (link / cached copy)

Energy Spent Moving ONE Car or Truck:

Theory:

Cars II in Sustainable Energy without the Hot Air, David J.C. MacKay, UIT

Author's website offering free multi-language chapter viewing & downloads (link)

Technical chapter: Cars II (link)

Discussion in my note set: Energy Consumption in Transportation (pptx / pdf / key)

Real Life:

Electric Vehicles 101, Prof. Dan Lauber, MIT, 2009 (link / cached PowerPoint copy / cached Keynote conversion)

All Electric Vehicles, FuelEconomy.gov (U.S. DOE & EPA) (link / cached copy)

 


GREENer CARS AND TRUCKS:

Overviews of Evolving Fuel Efficiency Standards & Technologies:

Standards:

A Brief History of U.S. Fuel Efficiency Standards: Where we are and where are we going? Union of Concerned Scientists (link / cached copy)

Obama Administration Finalizes Historic 54.5 MPG Fuel Efficiency Standards, White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2012 (link / cached copy

Technologies:

How Will Carmakers Adapt to Mileage Standards? U.S. National Public Radio (link / cached copy

How Automakers Can Meet New Fuel Efficiency Standards, Scientific American, 2010 (link / cached copy

Why Automakers Keep Beating Government Standards, Scientific American, 2016 (link / cached copy

2019 Automotive Trends Report, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (link / cached copy)

Cost Effectiveness and Deployment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light Duty Vehicles, U.S. National Academies, 2015 (link / cached copy)

Improving Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs):

Differences between basic Diesel & gasoline Spark Ignition ICEs?

Exceptionally clear explanation + meaningful comparison of diesel vs. spark ignition:

Diesel Engines, ExplainThatStuff.com (link / cached copy)

Other sources (some tending to be long on history / short on explanation):

Internal Combustion Engine (diesel & spark), Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Diesel Engine, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Petrol Engine (spark ignited gasoline), Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

What is the difference between OHV, OHC, SOHC and DOHC engines?  Samarins.com (link / cached copy)

Volkswagen Emission Scandal (a.k.a. "Dieselgate"), Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

SMMT Puts Record Straight on Diesel Cars with New Nationwide Consumer Campaign, SMMT.co.uk, 2015 (link / cached copy

Gasoline vs. Diesel - Comparing CO2 Emissions of a Modern Medium Size Car Model under Laboratory and On-Road Testing Conditions, International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), 2019 (link / cached copy)

Diesel and Gasoline Engine Exhausts . . . , U.S. National Institutes of Health:

Text: Diesel and Gasoline Engine Exhausts & Some Nitroarenes (link / cached copy)

Table III: Levels of Emissions from Various Diesel & Gasoline Engines (link / cached copy)

Table III abstracted: Deleting footnoting & links, showing only head-to-head comparison of light duty trucks vs. catalyst-equipped cars (link to my Excel spreadsheet)

Air Quality in Europe - 2016 Report, European Environmental Agency (link / cached copy)

Improving gasoline SI-ICE's fuel-air mixture creation and distribution:

How Does a Carburetor Work, Revzilla.com (link / cached copy)

How a Fuel Injection System Works, HowaCarWorks.com (link / cached copy)

Fuel Injection, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

What Are The Different Types of Fuel Injection?  Cars.com, 2016 (link / cached copy)

What is GDI / FSI / CGI / SIDI / Direct Injection? AutoPortal.com, 2016 (link / cached copy)

EFi vs. MPFi vs. GDi: How Electronic Fuel Injection Technology Works?  CarBikeTech.com (link / cached copy)

Fuel Stratified Ignition (FSI), Autopedia, automobile.fandom.com (link / cached copy)

Mercedes Benz Charged Gasoline Injection (CGI), Paultan.org (link / cached copy)

Improving gasoline SI-ICE's timing of fuel-air injection, spark, exhaust release:

Ignition Timing:

Ignition System, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Ignition Timing, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Engine Control Unit, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Ignition Timing For Optimum Engine Performance - CarBikeTech.com (link / cached copy)

Understanding Ignition Timing - Making Maximum Power Means Knowing the Science - Engine Builder Magazine (link / cached copy

Valve Timing:

Variable Valve Timing, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Camless Piston Engine, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

The Story Behind the Development of Variable Valve Timing, Aisin.com (link / cached copy)

YouTube video of Aisin's Variable Valve Timing technology (link)

"VTEC" Variable Valve Timing for Power and Fuel Economy, Honda.com (link / cached copy

What is the Cargine Free Valve System? Cargine / FreeValve.com (cached copy)

Improving SMALLER gasoline ICE's by adding turbocharger + intercooler:

Turbocharger (and intercooler), Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Intercooler, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Ford's version w/ turbocharger, intercooler, variable valve timing & direct fuel injection:

Ford Ecoboost Engine, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Ecoboost, Ford.com (link / cached copy)

When to Upgrade Your EcoBoost F-150’s Intercooler (only source confirming Ecoboost's use of an intercooler) (link / cached copy

A telling consequence of U.S. SI-ICE improvements:

America’s Best-Selling Cars and Trucks are Built on Lies: The Rise of Fake Engine Noise, Washington Post 2015 (link / cached copy

Using gasoline SI-ICEs More Effectively:

ICE Power Bands:

Power Band (engine/motor torque & power curves), Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Here’s Why Electric Cars Have Plenty of Grunt, Oomph and Torque, TheConversation.com, 2019 (link / cached copy

ICE Transmissions:

Transmission (Mechanics), Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Advanced Transmission Technologies, FuelEconomy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy / Environmental Protection Agency) (link / cached copy)

Dual Clutch Automatic Transmissions:

What's a Dual Clutch Transmission and How Does it Work? MatFoundryGroup.com (link / cached copy)

What Is a Dual-Clutch Transmission (and Is It Better?), CarFax.com (link / cached copy)  

How Dual-Clutch Transmissions Work, FastGroup.com (link / cached copy)

Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVTs):

Continuously Variable Transmission (CVTs), Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

How CVTs Work, Auto.HowStuffWorks.com (link / cached copy)

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs):

Hybrid Vehicle, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Wikiwand (link / cached copy)

Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain, Wikiwand (link / cached copy)

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of PHEVs, Elgowainy et al., U.S. Argonne National Laboratory, 2010 (link / cached copy

Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies - Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, U.S. National Academies 2010 (link / cached copy)

The Miles per Gallon Gap, Consumer Reports, 2013 (link / cached copy)

Renewed allegations that PHEV GHG emissions are vastly underestimated:

Recent press articles (both, I believe, misidentifying the true data source):

Plug-in Hybrids are a 'Wolf in Sheep's Clothing,' BBC.com, September 2020 (link / cached copy)

Plug-in Hybrids Called a ‘Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing’ as Study Claims Emissions are Higher than Thought, CNBC.com, September 2020 (link / cached copy

Secondary sources misidentified above as the primary source:

The Plug-in Hybrid Con, TransportEnvironment.org, September 2020 (link / cached copy)

Fraunhofer ISI/ICCT Analysis of PHEV Data Finds Real-World CO2 Emissions 2-4x Higher than Official Values, GreenCarCongress.com, September 2020 (link / cached copy)

What I believe to be the true primary data source:

Real-World Usage of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles - Fuel Consumption, Electric Driving and CO2 Emissions, Fraunhofer ISI Institute & International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), September 2020 (link / cached copy)

Storing a Vehicle's CURRENT Kinetic Energy for LATER Motion:

Overviews (broad and/or historic overviews, but providing limited technological insight):

Regenerative Brake, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Kinetic Energy Recovery System, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

How Regenerative Braking Works, HowStuffWorks.com (link / cached copy)

Shifting kinetic energy from vehicle to flywheels: "Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems"

Development of KERS in Formula I Hybrid Electric racing cars:

Formula One Cars to Use Hybrid-style Electric-only Mode in the Pits, CNET.com, April 2011 (link / cached copy

Turbocharging and Advanced Hybrid Tech coming to Formula 1 for 2014, NewAtlas.com, January 2014 (link / cached copy

Formula One’s New-Age Hybrids Find Their Footing, New York Times, 11 April 2014 (link / cached copy)

Formula 1 Cars (are) More Hybrid than Hybrids from Today, Electronics Weekly, January 2014 (link / cached copy

Transfer of KERS technology to road cars and buses:

KERS of the Hybrid Car: Flywheels and Ultracapacitors Give You a 10-Second Jolt, ExtremeTech.com, August 2011 (link / cached copy

KERS Comes to Cars as Jaguar Tests Flywheel Hybrid, Wired Magazine, October 2010 (link / cached copy

Volvo Announces KERS Hybrid SUV with CO2 Emissions of only 60g/km! BRACE Automotive, 2014 (link / cached copy)

Formula 1 Tech Transferred To Mercedes-Benz Hybrids, HybridCars.com, July 2014 (link / cached copy

F1 Tech Is About to Make Buses Way More Efficient, WIred Magazine, July 2014 (link / cached copy)

Converting kinetic energy to electrical energy: "Regenerative Braking"

Brake Energy Regeneration System, Mazda.com (link / cached copy)

Necessary power conversion functions:

Controlled Regenerative Braking using Real Time Speed Sensing, RoboTeq.com (link / cached copy)

How Can I Implement Regenerative Braking of a DC Motor?  Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange (link / cached copy)

Possible electrical circuits:

Active Control of Regenerative Brake for Electric Vehicles, Lin et al., Actuators 7, p. 84 (2018) (link / cached copy

Power Converter Circuits for Recuperation of the Regenerative Braking Energy in Rail Vehicles, Zupan et al., 2019 Int. Convention on Information & Communications Technology, Electronics & Microelectronics (link / cached copy

 


GREEN CARS & TRUCKS:

Plug-in Electric Vehicle Basics:

Alternative Fuels Data Center, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (link / cached copy)

U.S. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales by Model (link / cached copy)

Tesla Model 3, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Non-Green Grid + Plug-in Electric Vehicles: When & where will it make GHG sense:

Technical & Popular Press:

How Green is My Plug-in?, J. Voelcker, IEEE Spectrum (2009), Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers (link / cached copy)

Unclean at Any Speed: Electric Cars Donʼt Solve the Automobileʼs Environmental Problems, IEEE Spectrum (2013), Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers (link / cached copy)

How Environmentally Friendly are Electric Cars?  BBC News 2013 (link / cached copy)

Electric Cars are not Necessarily Green, Scientific American 2016 (link / cached copy)

Well-to-Wheel & Lifecycle Analysis of Energy Transfer & Greenhouse Gas Emission:

Tutorials (from blogger w/ no declared affiliation + websites w/ vested interests):

Wells to Wheels: Electric Car Efficiency, Maury Markowitz (link / cached copy)

Well to Wheels, California Fuel Cell Partnership, 2016 (link / cached copy)

Well-to-Wheel - How to Better Understand It, gMobility.eu (part of the Natural & Bio Gas Vehicle Association - Europe) (link / cached copy

Analyses:

Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type, National Renewable Energy Lab 2016 (link / cached copy

A New Comparison Between the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery Electric Vehicles and Internal Combustion Vehicles, Ma et al., Energy Policy 44, pp. 160-73 (2012) (link / cached copy)

Cleaner Cars from Cradle to Grave - How Electric Cars Beat Gasoline Cars on Lifetime Global Warming Emissions, Union of Concerned Scientists, 2015 (link /cached copy)

Effect of Regional Grid Mix, Driving Patterns and Climate on the Comparative Carbon Footprint of Gasoline and Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the United States, Environ. Res. Lett. 11 044007 (2016) (link / cached copy)

Net Emission Reductions from Electric Cars and Heat Pumps in 59 World Regions Over Time, Knobloch et al., Nature Sustainability, March 2020 (link / cached copy

Press report about preceding study: Electric Cars Better for Climate in 95% of the World, ScienceDaily.com, March 2020 (link / cached copy)

Plug-to-Wheel Energy Balance - Results of a Two Years Experience Behind the Wheel of Electric Vehicles, Vroey  et al., World Electric Vehicle Journal 6, pp. 130-134 (2013) / Proceedings of the Electric Vehicle Symposium 27, Barcelona, Spain, (link / cached copy)

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Future Automotive Fuels and Powertrains in the European Context, European Union Joint Research Council, 2014 (link to website)

Main Report (link / cached copy)

Appendix I - Summary of WTW Energy and GHG balances (link / cached copy)

Appendix II - Reference List (link / cached copy)

Environmental Effects of Battery Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles, U.S. Congressional Research Service 2020 (link / cached copy)

The Miles per Gallon Gap, Consumer Reports, 2013 (link / cached copy)

Renewed allegations that PHEV GHG emissions are vastly underestimated:

Recent press articles (both, I believe, misidentifying the true data source):

Plug-in Hybrids are a 'Wolf in Sheep's Clothing,' BBC.com, September 2020 (link / cached copy)

Plug-in Hybrids Called a ‘Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing’ as Study Claims Emissions are Higher than Thought, CNBC.com, September 2020 (link / cached copy

Secondary sources misidentified above as the primary source:

The Plug-in Hybrid Con, TransportEnvironment.org, September 2020 (link / cached copy)

Fraunhofer ISI/ICCT Analysis of PHEV Data Finds Real-World CO2 Emissions 2-4x Higher than Official Values, GreenCarCongress.com, September 2020 (link / cached copy)

What I believe to be the true primary data source:

Real-World Usage of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles - Fuel Consumption, Electric Driving and CO2 Emissions, Fraunhofer ISI Institute & International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), September 2020 (link / cached copy)

Growing a future Green Grid:

Candidate low-GHG power plant technologies are detailed in note sets listed & outlined

on the WeCanFigureThisOut.org Energy Homepage

Grid power transmission is discussed in the note sets:

Generic Power Plant & Grid (pptx / pdf / key)

A Renewable Distributed Grid (pptx / pdf / key)

Grid energy storage is discussed in the note set:  

Power Cycles and Energy Storage (pptx / pdf / key)

Green Grid + Plug-in Electric Vehicles:

Individual PEV Charging Stations:

Tesla Supercharger, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Power Flow Regulation and Building Codes Review by the AVTA, Adrene Briones, James Francfort, Paul Heitmann, Michael Schey, Steven Schey and John Smart, Idaho National Laboratory, 2012 (link / cached copy)

Electrification of Transportation and the Impacts on the Electric Grid, Tom King, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2011 (link / cached copy)

Battery University 103 - Electric Vehicle(s), BatteryUniversity.com (link / cached copy)

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review, Kevin Morrow, Donald Karner and James Francfort, Idaho National Laboratory, 2008 (link / cached copy)

Overall PEV Charging Infrastructure:

Electric Vehicle Grid Integration in the US Europe and China - International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), 2013 (link / cached copy)

Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles, U.S. National Academies, 2015 (link / cached copy

Integrating Electric Vehicles within U.S. and European Efficiency Regulations, International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), 2017 (link / cached copy)

Global EV Outlook 2020 - Entering the Decade of Electric Drive? International Energy Agency ( IEA), 2020 (link / cached copy)

More narrowly focused reports:

Electric Vehicles and the Electric Grid: A Review of Modeling Approaches, Impacts, and Renewable Energy Integration, D.B. Richardson, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 19, pp. 247-54, 2013)(link / cached copy

Austin, Utilities Launch Campaign for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles, American Public Power Association, Public Power Daily, 25 January 2006 (link / cached copy)

Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging Behaviors - Experiences from Six Smart Grid Investment Grants, U.S. Department of Energy, 2009 (link / cached copy)

An Evaluation of Utility System Impacts and Benefits of Optimally Dispatched Plug-in hybrid Vehicles National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2006 (link / cached copy)

Vehicle to Grid (V2G):

Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Power Flow Regulation and Building Codes Review by the AVTA, Adrene Briones, James Francfort, Paul Heitmann, Michael Schey, Steven Schey and John Smart, Idaho National Laboratory, 2012 (link / cached copy)

Electric & Hybrid Cars - New Load or New Resource? Steven Letendre, Paul Denholm and Peter Lilienthal, Public Utility Fortnightly, December 2006 (link / cached copy)

Green Grid + Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles:

High-GHG vs. Zero-GHG Hydrogen - Steam Reforming vs. Water Electrolysis:

Hydrogen Production, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Production and Distribution, International Energy Agency (IEA) (link / cached copy)

Steam Reforming (of Methane), Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Electrolysis of Water, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Fuel Cells - Reversible (for Grid energy storage) vs. non-reversible (for vehicles):

Electrolysis of Water and Fuel Cell Operation, HyperPhysics, Georgia State University (link / cached copy)

Fuel Cell, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Types of Fuel Cells, Energy.gov (link / cached copy)

Regenerative (reversible) Fuel Cell, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

What are Regenerative Fuel Cells? AltEnergy.org (link / cached copy)

Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology for Green Fuel and Power Production, Mihn et al., Interface (Electrochemical Society)  2013 (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles - Including the fact that Fuel Cell Vehicles require batteries:

Fuel Cell Vehicle, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, Alternative Fuels Data Center, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (link / cached copy)

How Do Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Work Using Hydrogen, Alternative Fuels Data Center, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)  (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles; Current Status and Future Prospect - Review, Manoharan et al., Applied Sciences 9, p.2296 (2019) (link / cached copy

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure (in chronological order):

Hydrogen Station, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Analysis of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Needed to Enable Commercial Introduction of Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicles, M. Melendez and A. Milbrandt, National Renewable Energy Lab, 2005 (link / cached copy)

Developing Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure for Fuel Fell Vehicles - A status Update, International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), 2017 (link / cached copy)

Modeling Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure to Support Passenger Vehicles, Muratori et al., National Renewable Energy Lab, J. Energies 11, p. 1171 (2018) (link / cached copy

A Look At Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure In 2018, CleanTechnica.com (link / cached copy)

Costs Check Growth of Fuel-Cell Infrastructure, Wards Auto 2019 (link / cached copy)

California’s ‘Hydrogen Highway’ Never Happened - Could 2020 Change That?  CalMatters.org (link / cached copy)

2020 Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment & Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development, California Air Resources Board (link / cached copy)

Press summary of preceding report:

CARB Releases Annual Evaluation of FCEV Deployment and Hydrogen Station Network Development, GreenCarCongress.com (link / cached copy

Why We Still Can't Deliver on the Promise of Hydrogen Cars, Drive.com, 2020 (link / cached copy)

THE GREAT DEBATE: Battery Electric Vehicles vs. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles?

As Debated in the Press:

Why the Automotive Future Will Be Dominated by Fuel Cells, IEEE Spectrum, 2016 (link / cached copy

Is Hydrogen Internal Combustion a Better Idea than Fuel Cells? GreenCarReports.com, 2019 (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Fuel Cell vs Electric Cars: What You Need to Know but Couldn't Ask, EuroNews.com 2020 (link / cached copy)

As Argued by VW & Tesla (for batteries) vs. Toyota (for fuel cells):

Hydrogen or Battery? A Clear Case, Until Further Notice, VW, 2019 (link / cached copy)

Reports & discussion of the preceding article:

Battery Electric vs. Hydrogen Fuel Cell: Efficiency Comparison, InsideEVs.com, 2020  (link / cached copy)

Battery-Electric or Hydrogen Fuel Cell - VW Lays Out Why One is the Winner - Green Car Reports, (link / cached copy)

Toyota vs. Tesla - Can Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Compete with Electric Vehicles? EnergyPost.eu, 2015 (link / cached copy)

Toyota Really Believes Hydrogen Fuel Cells are the Future - Here’s why, Autoweek.com, 2019 (link / cached copy)

As Studied by Academics, Government Labs & NGOs (in chronological order):

Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Emissions of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery and Distribution Systems, Ruth et al, National Renewable Energy Lab, 2009 (link / cached copy)

Comparative Analysis of Battery Electric, Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Hybrid Vehicles in a Future Sustainable Road Transport System, Offer et al., J. Energy Policy 38, pp. 24-39, 2010 (link / cached copy

Battery Electric Vehicles, Hydrogen Fuel cells & Biofuels, Which Will be the Winner? Constestabile et al., J. Engineering & Environmental Science 4(10) pp. 3754-3772 (2011) (link / cached copy)

How Clean Are Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles? Fact Sheet, Union of Concerned Scientists, 2014 (link / cached copy)

A Comparative Assessment of Battery and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Using a Well-to-Wheel Analysis, M. Li & X. Zhang, Energy 94, pp. 693-704 (2016) (link / cached copy)

Relative Merits of Battery-Electric Vehicles and Fuel-Cell Vehicles, B. Schoettle & M Sivak, U. Michigan Transportation Res. Inst., 2016 (link / cached copy

Where Are We Heading With Electric Vehicles, Air Quality and Climate Change 52(3), pp. 18-27, September 2018 (link / cached copy

Phys Org article about the preceding study, written by that study's authors:

Why Battery-Powered Vehicles Stack up Better than Hydrogen, Phys.Org, 2018 (link / cached paper)

A Guide to Comparing Electric Vehicles: Hybrid vs. Battery Electric vs. Plug-in vs. Fuel Cell, Union of Concerned Scientists, 2020 (link / cached copy)

A Portfolio of Power-trains for Europe: A Fact-based Analysis (commissioned by consortium of companies and NGOs involved in auto manufacture, fossil-fuels, electric power, wind power, hydrogen generation and fuel cells) 2020 (link / cached copy)

Hidden / Long Term Environment Impacts of Batteries & Fuel Cells?

Batteries:

Contribution of Li-Ion Batteries to the Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles, Notter et al., Environmental Science & Technology 44, pp. 6550-6556 (2010) (link / cached copy

Do You Know Where Your Batteries Come From? TheConversation.com 2017 (link /cached copy)

Batteries Can be Part of the Fight Against Climate Change - If We do these Five Things, World Economic Forum 2017 (link / cached copy) 

Don't be Fooled by Attacks on the Lithium Battery, David Suzuki, National Observer 2017 (link / cached copy

Effects of Battery Manufacturing on Electric Vehicle Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions, International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), 2018 (link / cached copy

The Spiraling Environmental Cost of our Lithium Battery Addiction, Wired Magazine UK 2018 (link / cached copy

Will Your Electric Car Save the World or Wreck It? Engineering.com 2018 (link / cached copy

Cobalt is Critical to the Renewable Energy Transition. How can we Minimize its Social and Environmental Cost? Ensia.com 2018 (link / cached copy)

The Path to Lithium Batteries: Friend or Foe? TreeHugger.com 2018 (link / cached copy

Effects of Battery Manufacturing on Electric Vehicle Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions, International Council on Clean Transportation - ICCT (2018) (link / cached copy

Environmental Effects of Battery Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles, U.S. Congressional Research Service 2020 (link / cached copy

UN Highlights Urgent Need to Tackle Impact of Likely Electric Car Battery Production Boom - UN News Org. 2020 (link / cached copy

Report referenced in preceding UN News article:

Commodities at a Glance - Special Issue on Battery Raw Materials, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2020 (link / cached copy) 

Fuel Cells:

Life-Cycle Analysis of Fuel Cell System Components, M. Pehnt,  Handbook of Fuel Cells - Fundamentals, Technology and Applications (ISBN: 0-471-49926-9), 2003 (link / cached copy)

Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen-based Energy Systems, European Union, 2005 (link / cached copy)

Life Cycle Analysis of Fuel Cell Technology, Dhanushkodi et al., J. Environ. Informatics 11(1) 36-44 (2008) (link / cached copy)

Study Questions Environmental Impact of Fuel-Cell Vehicles, Physics World, 2015 (link / cached copy)

Are Fuel Cells Environmentally Friendly? Not Always, Science Daily 2015 (link / cached copy)

Paywalled Royal Society of Chemistry study to which two previous articles refer:

Life Cycle Assessment of PEM FC Applications: Electric Mobility and μ-CHP, Notter et al., J. Energy & Environmental Science (paywalled link

Life Cycle Environmental and Cost Comparison of Current and Future Passenger Cars under Different Energy Scenarios, Cox et al., J. Applied Energy 269, p.115021 (2020) (link / cached copy

 


Autonomous Vehicles:

Help or Hindrance? The Travel, Energy and Carbon Impacts of Highly Automated Vehicles, Wadud et al., Transportation Research A16, pp. 1-18 (2016) (link / cached copy

The Environmental Impact of Autonomous Vehicles Depends on Adoption Patterns, Miller and Heard,   Environ. Sci. Technol. 50, pp. 6119−6121 (2016) (link / cached copy)

A Review on Energy, Environmental, and Sustainability Implications of Connected and Automated Vehicles, Taiebat et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 52, pp. 11449-11465 (2018) (link / cached copy)

Connected & Autonomous Vehicles – Environmental Impacts – A Review, Kopleias et al., Science of the Total Environment 712 (2020) (link / cached copy)

Assessing the Sustainability Implications of Autonomous Vehicles: Recommendations for Research Community Practice, Williams et al., Sustainability 12, 1902 (2020) (link / cached copy)