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Resources: Greener Cars and Trucks
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Corresponding Web Notes: Greener Cars and Trucks (pptx / pdf / key)

Under Construction - September 2020

Energy Spent Moving ALL Cars and Trucks:

See my preceding note set: Energy Consumption in Transportation (pptx / pdf / key)

World Energy Balances - Overview - 2020, International Energy Agency (IEA) (link / cached copy)

Key World Energy Statistics - 2019, International Energy Agency (IEA) (link / cached copy)

World Energy Consumption, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Electricity Information - Overview - 2020, International Energy Agency (IEA) (link / cached copy)

Energy Spent Moving ONE Car or Truck:

Theory:

Cars II in Sustainable Energy without the Hot Air, David J.C. MacKay, UIT

Author's website offering free multi-language chapter viewing & downloads (link)

Technical chapter: Cars II (link)

Discussion in my note set: Energy Consumption in Transportation (pptx / pdf / key)

Real Life:

Electric Vehicles 101, Prof. Dan Lauber, MIT (link / cached PowerPoint copy / cached Keynote conversion)

All Electric Vehicles, FuelEconomy.gov (U.S. DOE & EPA) (link / cached copy)

Well-to-Wheel Energy Transfer / Greenhouse Gas Emission:

Tutorials:

Wells to Wheels: Electric Car Efficiency, Maury Markowitz (link / cached copy)

Well to Wheels, California Fuel Cell Partnership, 2016 (link / cached copy)

Well-to-Wheel – How to Better Understand It, gMobility.eu (link / cached copy

Analyses:

Comparing Apples to Apples: Well-to-Wheel Analysis of Current ICE and Fuel Cell Vehicle Technologies, Rousseau & Sharer, U.S. Argonne National Laboratory, 2004 (link / cached copy

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of PHEVs, Elgowainy et al., U.S. Argonne National Laboratory, 2010 (link / cached copy

Plug-to-Wheel Energy Balance - Results of a Two Years Experience Behind the Wheel of Electric Vehicles, Vroey  et al., World Electric Vehicle Journal 6, pp. 130-134 (2013) / Proceedings of the Electric Vehicle Symposium 27, Barcelona, Spain, (link / cached copy)

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Future Automotive Fuels and Powertrains in the European Context, European Union Joint Research Council, 2014 (link to website)

Main Report (link / cached copy)

Appendix I - Summary of WTW Energy and GHG balances (link / cached copy)

Appendix II - Reference List (link / cached copy)

GREENer CARS AND TRUCKS:

Improving Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) and/or avoiding ineffective operation:

The ongoing evolution of Internal Combustion Engines:

Cost Effectiveness and Deployment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light Duty Vehicles, U.S. National Academies, 2015 (link / cached copy)

2019 Automotive Trends Report, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (link / cached copy)

Internal Combustion Engine Basics:

Internal Combustion Engine, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Compression Ignition Engine:

Diesel Engine, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Spark Ignition Engine:

Petrol (gasoline) Engine, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

What is the difference between OHV, OHC, SOHC and DOHC engines?  Samarins.com (link / cached copy)

Improving ICE fuel / air mixing & injection:

Fuel Injection, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

What Are The Different Types of Fuel Injection?  Cars.com, 2016 (link / cached copy)

What is GDI / FSI / CGI / SIDI / Direct Injection? AutoPortal.com, 2016 (link / cached copy)

EFi vs. MPFi vs. GDi: How Electronic Fuel Injection Technology Works?  CarBikeTech.com (link / cached copy)

Variable Valve Timing, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Camless Piston Engine, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

What is the Cargine Free Valve System? Cargine / FreeValve.com (cached copy)

Improving ICE fuel / air ignition:

Ignition System, Wikpedia (link / cached copy)

Avoiding ineffective ICE operation:

ICE Power Bands:

Power Band (engine/motor torque & power curves), Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Electric motor torque & power curves, from BMW's "An Electrifying Driving Experience" (link / cached copy)

ICE Transmissions:

Transmission (Mechanics), Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Continuously Variable Transmission (CVTs), Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

The cumulative effect of the above ICE improvements:

2019 Automotive Trends Report, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (link / cached copy)

America’s Best-Selling Cars and Trucks are Built on Lies: The Rise of Fake Engine Noise, Washington Post 2015 (link / cached copy

Storing a vehicle's CURRENT kinetic energy of motion to energize LATER motion:

Overviews (broad and/or historic overviews, but providing limited technological insight):

Regenerative Brake, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

How Regenerative Braking Works, HowStuffWorks.com (link / cached copy

Converting kinetic energy to electrical energy: "Regenerative Braking"

Tutorials:

Controlled Regenerative Braking using Real Time Speed Sensing, RoboTeq.com (link / cached copy)

How Can I Implement Regenerative Braking of a DC Motor?  Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange (link / cached copy)

Electrical Circuits:

Active Control of Regenerative Brake for Electric Vehicles, Lin et al., Actuators 7, p. 84 (2018) (link / cached copy

Power Converter Circuits for Recuperation of the Regenerative Braking Energy in Rail Vehicles, Zupan et al., 2019 Int. Convention on Information & Communications Technology, Electronics & Microelectronics (link / cached copy

Shifting kinetic energy from vehicle to flywheels: "Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems"

Development of KERS in Formula I Hybrid Electric racing cars:

Formula One Cars to Use Hybrid-style Electric-only Mode in the Pits, CNET.com, April 2011 (link / cached copy

Turbocharging and Advanced Hybrid Tech coming to Formula 1 for 2014, NewAtlas.com, January 2014 (link / cached copy

Formula One’s New-Age Hybrids Find Their Footing, New York Times, 11 April 2014 (link / cached copy)

Formula 1 Cars (are) More Hybrid than Hybrids from Today, Electronics Weekly, January 2014 (link / cached copy

Transfer of KERS technology to road cars and buses:

KERS of the Hybrid Car: Flywheels and Ultracapacitors Give You a 10-Second Jolt, ExtremeTech.com, August 2011 (link / cached copy

KERS Comes to Cars as Jaguar Tests Flywheel Hybrid, Wired Magazine, October 2010 (link / cached copy

Volvo Announces KERS Hybrid SUV with CO2 Emissions of only 60g/km! BRACE Automotive, 2014 (link / cached copy)

Formula 1 Tech Transferred To Mercedes-Benz Hybrids, HybridCars.com, July 2014 (link / cached copy

F1 Tech Is About to Make Buses Way More Efficient, WIred Magazine, July 2014 (link / cached copy)

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs): Retaining ICEs but eliminating their ineffective operation:

Electric Vehicles 101, Prof. Dan Lauber, MIT (link / cached PowerPoint copy / cached Keynote conversion)

GREEN CARS & TRUCKS:

The clear benefit of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) charged by tomorrow’s Green Grid:

Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies - Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, U.S. National Academies 2010 (link / cached copy)

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels, U.S. National Academies 2013 (link / cached copy)

Cost Effectiveness and Deployment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light Duty Vehicles, U.S. National Academies, 2015 (link / cached copy)

Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles, U.S. National Academies 2015 (link / cached copy

Global EV Outlook 2020 - Entering the Decade of Electric Drive? International Energy Agency (IEA) (link / cached copy)

Comparative Analysis of Battery Electric, Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Hybrid Vehicles in a Future Sustainable Road Transport System, Offer et al., Energy Policy 38, pp. 24-29 (2010) (link / cached copy)

All Electric Vehicles, FuelEconomy.gov, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (link / cached copy)

Electric Cars are Taking Off - What’s the Problem with an Electric Pickup Truck?  Washinton Post, August 2017 (link / cached copy)

New Breed of Pickups Mixes Horsepower and Battery Power, New York Times, May 2020 (link / cached copy

The debated benefit of PEVs charged by today’s Non-Green Grid:

Popular & Technical Press:

How Green is My Plug-in?, J. Voelcker, IEEE Spectrum (2009), Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers (link / cached copy)

How Environmentally Friendly are Electric Cars?  BBC News 2013 (link / cached copy)

Unclean at Any Speed: Electric Cars Donʼt Solve the Automobileʼs Environmental Problems, IEEE Spectrum (2013), Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers (link / cached copy)

Research Studies:

Contribution of Li-Ion Batteries to the Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles, Notter et al., Environmental Science & Technology 44, pp. 6550-6556 (2010) (link / cached copy

A New Comparison Between the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery Electric Vehicles and Internal Combustion Vehicles, Ma et al., Energy Policy 44, pp. 160-73 (2012) (link / cached copy)

Cleaner Cars from Cradle to Grave - How Electric Cars Beat Gasoline Cars on Lifetime Global Warming Emissions, Union of Concerned Scientists, 2015 (link /cached copy)

Integrating Electric Vehicles within U.S. and European Efficiency Regulations, International Council on Clean Transportation - ICCT, 2017 (link / cached copy

Net Emission Reductions from Electric Cars and Heat Pumps in 59 World Regions Over Time, Knobloch et al., Nature Sustainability, March 2020 (link / cached copy

Environmental Effects of Battery Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles, U.S. Congressional Research Service 2020 (link / cached copy)

Questions about the environmental impact of today's electric vehicle batteries and fuel cells:

Batteries:

Contribution of Li-Ion Batteries to the Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles, Notter et al., Environmental Science & Technology 44, pp. 6550-6556 (2010) (link / cached copy

Do You Know Where Your Batteries Come From? TheConversation.com 2017 (link /cached copy)

Batteries Can be Part of the Fight Against Climate Change - If We do these Five Things, World Economic Forum 2017 (link / cached copy) 

Don't be Fooled by Attacks on the Lithium Battery, David Suzuki, National Observer 2017 (link / cached copy

Effects of Battery Manufacturing on Electric Vehicle Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions, International Council on Clean Tranportation (ICCT), 2018 (link / cached copy

The Spiralling Environmental Cost of our Lithium Battery Addiction, Wired Magazine UK 2018 (link / cached copy

Will Your Electric Car Save the World or Wreck It? Engineering.com 2018 (link / cached copy

Cobalt is Critical to the Renewable Energy Transition. How can we Minimize its Social and Environmental Cost? Ensia.com 2018 (link / cached copy)

The Path to Lithium Batteries: Friend or Foe? TreeHugger.com 2018 (link / cached copy

Effects of Battery Manufacturing on Electric Vehicle Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions, International Council on Clean Transportation - ICCT (2018) (link / cached copy

Environmental Effects of Battery Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles, U.S. Congressional Research Service 2020 (link / cached copy

UN Highlights Urgent Need to Tackle Impact of Likely Electric Car Battery Production Boom - UN News Org. 2020 (link / cached copy

Report referenced in preceding UN News article:

Commodities at a Glance - Special Issue on Battery Raw Materials, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2020 (link / cached copy) 

Fuel Cells:

Hydrogen Fuel Cells are a focus of my note set: A Hydrogen Economy? (pptx / pdf / key)

That note set includes discussion of these relevant articles:

The Potential Environmental Impact of a Hydrogen Economy on the Stratosphere, Science 300, pp. 1740-1742 (2003) (link / cached copy

How Clean Are Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles?  Union of Concerned Scientists, 2014 (link / cached copy)

Life Cycle Assessment of PEM FC (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell) Applications, Notter et al., Energy & Environmental Science 8, pp. 1969-1985 (2025) (link / cached copy

Are Fuel Cells Environmentally Friendly? Not Always, Science Daily, 2015 (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen: Still the Fuel of the Future? ChemistryWorld.com, 2018 (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Fuel Cells Are Losing The Battery Electric Car Race, But Itʼs Only Lap 1, Forbes Magazine, 2020 (link / cached copy

Challenges of adding PEV's to the Grid: Capacity? Stability? Charging infrastructure?

Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies - Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, U.S. National Academies 2010 (link / cached copy)

Electric Vehicles and the Electric Grid: A Review of Modeling Approaches, Impacts, and Renewable Energy Integration, D.B. Richardson, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 19, pp. 247-54 (2013) (link / cached copy

Issues and Solution Approaches in PHEV Integration to Smart Grid, Hota et al., Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 30, pp. 217-29 (2014) (paywalled link

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review, Kevin Morrow, Donald Karner and James Francfort, Idaho National Laboratory (link / cached copy)

Austin, Utilities Launch Campaign for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles, American Public Power Association, Public Power Daily, 25 January 2006 (link / cached copy)

Electrification of Transportation and the Impacts on the Electric Grid, Tom King, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (as presented at Georgia Tech, 7 April 2011) (link / cached copy)

Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging Behaviors - Experiences from Six Smart Grid Investment Grants, U.S. Department of Energy (link / cached copy)

An Evaluation of Utility System Impacts and Benefits of Optimally Dispatched Plug-in hybrid Vehicles
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (link / cached copy)

Benefits of adding PEVs to the Grid: Load Leveling / Vehicle to Grid

Electric & Hybrid Cars - New Load or New Resource? Steven Letendre, Paul Denholm and Peter Lilienthal, Public Utility Fortnightly, December 2006 (link / cached copy)

Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Power Flow Regulation and Building Codes Review by the AVTA Adrene Briones, James Francfort, Paul Heitmann, Michael Schev, Steven Schey and John Smart, Idaho National Laboratory (link / cached copy)

Autonomous Vehicles - Possible Green vs. Non-Green Impacts:

Help or Hindrance? The Travel, Energy and Carbon Impacts of Highly Automated Vehicles, Wadud et al., Transportation Research A16, pp. 1-18 (2016) (link / cached copy

The Environmental Impact of Autonomous Vehicles Depends onAdoption Patterns, Miller and Heard,   Environ. Sci. Technol. 50, pp. 6119−6121 (2016) (link / cached copy)

A Review on Energy, Environmental, and Sustainability Implications of Connected and Automated Vehicles, Taiebat et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 52, pp. 11449-11465 (2018) (link / cached copy)

Connected & Autonomous Vehicles – Environmental Impacts – A Review, Kopleias et al., Science of the Total Environment 712 (2020) (link / cached copy)

Assessing the Sustainability Implications of Autonomous Vehicles: Recommendations for Research Community Practice, Williams et al., Sustainability 12, 1902 (2020) (link / cached copy)