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Resources: A Hydrogen Economy?
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Corresponding Web Notes: Hydrogen Economy (pptx / pdf / key)

UNDER CONSTRUCTION 2021

Part I - Big Picture:

Origins of the Idea

Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells - A Vision of Our Future, European Commission, 2003 (link / cached copy)

The Hydrogen Economy, Physics Today, 2004 (link / cached copy)

The Hydrogen Economy - Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R & D Needs, U.S. National Academies, 2004 (link / cached copy)

Fallacies of a Hydrogen Economy: A Critical Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Utilization, Kreith and West, J. Energy Resources and Technology 126, pp. 249-257 (2004) (link / cached copy)

A Hydrogen Future? An Economic and Environmental Assessment of Hydrogen Production Pathways, Natural Resources Defense Council, 2005 (link / cached copy)

The Truth About Hydrogen Power, Popular Mechanics Crunches the Numbers, November 2006  (link / cached copy)

Today's Vision / Today's Reality?

According to advocates:

Roadmap to a U.S. Hydrogen Economy, California Fuel Cell Partnership, 2019 (link / cached copy)

Key question raised: Could hydrogen fully exploit existing natural gas distribution systems?

Wikipedia's changing view:

Hydrogen Economy - Wikipedia 2020 (cached copy) vs.
Hydrogen Economy - Wikipedia 2021 (link / cached copy)

U.S. Department of Energy views:

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Networks: A Review of Key Issues, Melaina et al., U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, 2013 (link / cached copy)

HYDROGEN STRATEGY - Enabling A Low-Carbon Economy, U.S. Department of Energy, July 2020 (link / cached copy)

Path to Hydrogen Competitiveness - A Cost Perspective, Hydrogen Council, 2020 (link / cached copy)

According to organizations with aligned agendas:

Hydrogen from Renewable Power - Technology Outlook for the Energy Transition, International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) 2018 (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen: A Renewable Energy Perspective, International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), 2019 (link / cached copy)

HYDROGEN STRATEGY - Enabling A Low-Carbon Economy, U.S. Department of Energy, July 2020 (link / cached copy

A Hydrogen Strategy for Climate Neutral Europe, European Commission, 2020 (link / cached copy)

At the Dawn of the Hydrogen Economy, A. Schnettler, Siemens Inc., as published in PowerMag.com, July 2020 (link / cached copy)

According to arm's length and/or more objective sources:

Power-to-Gas: Linking Electricity and Gas in a Decarbonising World? Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 2018 (link / cached copy)

Key source about end-to-end process energy efficiencies cited in preceding article:

Transition of Future Energy System Infrastructure; through Power-to-Gas Pathways, Maroufmashat & Fowler, Energies 10, p.1089, 2017 (link / cached copy)

The Future of Hydrogen - Seizing Today's Opportunities, International Energy Agency (IEA), 2019 (link / cached copy

Hydrogen: Help or Hype? RenewOrgAustralia, 2019 (link / cached copy)

Business / Economic Analyses:

Hydrogen-based Energy Conversion, Kearney Energy Transition Institute, 2014 (link / cached copy)

Cost Assessment of Hydrogen Production from PV and Electrolysis, Csiro Energy / Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA), 2018 (link / cached copy)

Path to Hydrogen Competitiveness - A Cost Perspective, Hydrogen Council, 2020 (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Economy Outlook - Key Messages, Bloomberg, March 2020  (link / cached copy)

Can The World Really Afford A Hydrogen Economy, Forbes, October 2020 (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Economy: Hyped for Years the Most Abundant Element in the Universe is Finally Having its Moment, Fortune, November 2020 (link / cached copy)

Press Coverage & Reaction:

Popular Press:

The Truth About Hydrogen Power, Popular Mechanics Crunches the Numbers, November 2006  (link / cached copy) - though now dated, this an exceptionally readable & comprehensive article

Hydrogen as Fuel? An Italian Pasta Factory Shows How It Could Work, New York Times, May 2020 (link / cached copy)

Don't Rush into a Hydrogen Economy until We Know All the Risks to Our Climate, TheConversation.com, August 2020 (link / cached copy)

California Is Trying to Jump-Start the Hydrogen Economy, New York Times, November 2020 (link / cached copy)

Technical Press:

Hydrogen - Still the Fuel of the Future, ChemistryWorld.com, 2018 (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen, Don't Give Up! PV-Magazine.com, 2018 (link / cached copy)

The Reality Behind Green Hydrogen’s Soaring Hype, GreenTechMedia.com, 2019 (link / cached copy

Latest “Hydrogen Economy” Round Is Hype, But There Is a Place For Hydrogen, CleanTechnica.com, 2020 (link / cached copy)

Where are we with the Hydrogen Economy? Engineering.com, 2020 (link / cached copy)

Energy Industry Press:

Realising the Hydrogen Economy, PowerTechnology.com, October 2019 (link / cached copy)

How Much Will Hydrogen-Based Power Cost? Power Magazine, 2020 (link / cached copy)


Part II - Component Technologies and Processes:

Hydrogen Production / Hydrogen Electrolyzers:

Hydrogen Production, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Steam Reforming, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Kvaemer Process, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Electrolyzers:

Electrolysis, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Electrolysis of Water, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Production by Membrane Water Splitting Technologies, Chapter 2, Kamaroddin et al. (link / cached copy

Alkaline Electrolyzers (ALKs):

Advances in Alkaline Water Electrolyzers - A review, publicly accessible preprint later published in J. Energy Storage 23, pp. 3992-403, 2019 (link / cached copy)

Alkaline Water Electrolysis Powered by Renewable Energy - A Review, Brauns and Turek, J. Processes 8, pp. 248, 2020 (link / cached copy

Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers (PEMs):

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolysis, Wikipedia (link / cached copy

Hydrogen Production by PEM Water Electrolysis – A review, Kumar et la - J. Mat. Sci. for Energy Tech 2, pp.442-454, 2019 (link / cached copy)

Solid Oxide Electrolyzers (SOECs):

Solid Oxide Electrolysis Grows up at CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation of Australia), GasWorld.com, May 2020 (link / cached copy

Comparisons & Analyses:

Technologies for Hydrogen Production, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy NETL / DOE) (link / cached copy

Hydrogen Production & Distribution, Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program, International Energy Agency (IEA), 2014 (link / cached copy

Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis for PEM and Alkaline Water Electrolysis Systems, Ruth et al., U.S., National Renewable Energy Lab, 2014 (link / cached copy

Cost Assessment of Hydrogen Production from PV and Electrolysis, Csiro Energy / Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA), 2018 (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen from Renewable Power Technology - Outlook for the Energy Transition, International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), 2018 (link / cached copy)

Options for Producing Low Carbon Hydrogen at Scale, Royal Society, 2018 (link / cached copy

Hydrogen Production Energy Conversion Efficiencies: Current Technologies, Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center, Pacific Northwest National Lab (link / cached copy

Cost Assessment of Hydrogen Production from PV and Electrolysis, Csiro Energy / Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA), 2018 (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Delivery (piped long distance transmission vs. local distribution):

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Networks: A Review of Key Issues, Melaina et al., U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab, 2013 (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Safety (low vis flame, high explosive range, leakage, accumulations, odorants)

Hydrogen Purification (essential for many types of Hydrogen Fuel Cell):

Hydrogen Storage:

Hydrogen Storage, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Energy Storage, Energy Storage Association 2020 (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Energy Storage Analysis Overview, U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 2010 (link / cached copy)

Energy Storage Analysis - Hydrogen & Fuel Cells, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), 2019 (link / cached copy)

a) Small to Medium Scale Hydrogen Storage (as required for most applications):

Hydrogen Storage Materials for Mobile Applications, Schlapach & Zuttel, Nature 414, pp. 353-358 (2001) (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Energy Storage, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (link / cached copy)

Physical Hydrogen Storage, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (link / cached copy)

b) Large Scale Hydrogen Storage (as required for Grid load-leveling energy storage):

Hydrogen or Batteries for Grid Storage? A Net Energy Analysis, Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 1938-1952 (2015) (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Fuel Cells:

Fuel Cell, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Fuel Cell Basics, AmericanHistory.Si.Edu (link / cached copy)

Hydrogen Basics - Fuel Cells, Florida Solar Energy Center (link / cached copy)

How Does the Fuel Cell Work? - Fuel Cell Technology Information, Battery University (link / cached copy)

Acid Fuel Cells: Phosphoric Acid & Solid (PAFCs & SAFCs):

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Solid Acid Fuel Cell, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFCs):

Alkaline Fuel Cell, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs):

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs):

Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, Wikipedia (link / cached copy

Life Cycle Assessment of PEM FC (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell) Applications, Notter et al., Energy & Environmental Science 8, pp. 1969-1985 (2015) (link / cached copy)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs):

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Wikipedia (link / cached copy)

Comparisons and Analyses:

Are Fuel Cells Environmentally Friendly? Not Always, Science Daily, 2015 (link / cached copy)

The Role of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Global Energy System, J. Eng. and Environ. Sci. 12, pp. 463-491 (2019) (Royal Society of Chemistry Review Article) (link / cached copy

Hydrogen Powered Vehicles:

How Clean Are Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles?  Union of Concerned Scientists, 2014 (link / cached copy)

Energy Storage Analysis - Hydrogen & Fuel Cells, U.S. National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), 2019 (link / cached copy)